DIFENDIAMO il Made in Italy

Rome in 48 hours







Everybody arrives in Rome with a wealth of knowledge, images and stories accumulated in the course of a lifetime. Anybody is able to mention, maybe with a slight effort, its most famous monuments and the protagonists of its history. This is perhaps the key to the charm of a city that seems to invite every visitor to feel part of its complex reality and its millennial history. This is an invitation to explore Rome and to build an image of it as complete as possible, that can be confronted with the city of our imagination in an exciting and evocative journey.

If you are planning a brief stay in Rome and would like some tips on how to spend your time here, select the recommended itinerary









Rome in 48 hours



FIRST DAY


The first itinerary we suggest starts from

(A) St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City
goes on to

(B) Castel S. Angelo
then, crossing the Tiber, gets to

(C) Piazza Navona
next to the

(D) Pantheon
and finally, passing through Piazza Colonna, ends up in

(E) Piazza di Spagna







(A) The Vatican City



Arriving at St. Peter's Square, the visitor is immediately impressed by the size of the memorable square facing St. Peter's, surrounded by the magnificent four-row colonnade masterpiece of Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Only when one gets inside the basilica, slowly climbing up the sweeping three flights of steps designed by Bernini, one will be truly amazed by the size and splendour of the largest church in the world, the symbol of Christianity, extending over a total of about 22,000 sqm.
The building is 136 m. high, the diameter of the Cupola, designed by Michelangelo, measures 42 m. It is possible to reach the top of the Cupola climbing 330 steps: once up there the view of the square below and of Rome is unforgettable. The church contains the masterpieces of important artists: the 29 m. high bronze baldachin by Bernini, the Pietà by Michelangelo, the tomb of Clement XIII by Canova and the mosaic of the Navicella by Giotto, located above the middle entrance to the Portico.
Numerous and timeless are the works of art, mainly paintings, kept in the Vatican Museums, which preserve the art of the most illustrious artists of all times. A visit to the Sistine Chapel, a milestone in the history of Italian painting, should not be missed.





Brief historical outline

The first basilica of St. Peter, belonging to the Vatican City, independent State since 1929 (Lateran Pacts), was built by emperor Costantin about 320 A.D. near the necropolis which included the tomb of the martyrized Saint, that can still be visited today. Around 1450, reconstruction works were first entrusted to Bernardo Rossellino, later on to Bramante who designed a Greek-cross plan basilica, and then to Raphael who designed it, instead, following a Latin-cross plan. The design by Bramante was resumed and enlarged by Michelangelo in 1547. Before its official conservation in 1626, the church was modified by Carlo Maderno who reverted definitively to the Latin-cross plan.





(B) Castel Sant'Angelo


From St. Peter's walking along Via della Conciliazione one can reach the second stop of our itinerary: Castel Sant'Angelo. The unique monument houses the National Museum where, besides the stuccoes, frescoes and furniture of the papal apartments, one can also admire an important collection of ancient arms. Castel Sant'Angelo is well known to Opera lovers, since right from its famous terrace overlooking the heart of Rome, Tosca, the protagonist of Giacomo Puccini's opera, threw herself down.






Brief historical outline

Castel Sant'Angelo is an imposing mausoleum built on the banks of the river Tiber, ordered and probably designed by Emperor Hadrian (2nd century AD), who wished to have a tomb for himself and his successors. Over the centuries Castel Sant'Angelo has undergone several changes: first a fortress against the attacks of the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, then a prison and finally a magnificent papal residence.





(C) Piazza Navona


From an air view, the arena-like shape of Piazza Navona can be easily noticed. As a matter of fact, the piazza was built on the Stadium of Domitian, whose ruins can still be admired in the adjacent church of Sant'Agnese in Agone. The church, designed by the great architect Francesco Borromini, is an excellent example of the Roman Baroque architecture. In Piazza Navona are three fountains: Fontana del Moro, Fontana di Nettuno and in the centre of the square Bernini's magnificent Fontana dei Fiumi. Four allegorical statues portray the Nile, the Ganges, the Danube and the Rio de la Plata, symbolizing the four corners of the world. Traditionally, from the beginning of December till the Epiphany, this piazza is occupied by stalls selling sweets and toys





Brief historical outline

Around 86 A.D., Emperor Domitian had a stadium built on a pre-existing amphitheatre of Nero's time and over the centuries the square became a place for games, tournaments and processions. From the 17th to the 19th centuries the square used to be flooded to allow the ships of princes and prelates to parade in a background of fireworks.





(D) Pantheon





The Pantheon is an impressive example of the exquisite architectural technique of ancient Rome. It consists of a huge cylindrical body of equal height and width, covered by a great hemispherical dome. Important artists such as the painter Raphael are buried there, as well as the Italian Sovereigns of the period when Italy was a monarchy.
Opposite to the Pantheon is Piazza della Rotonda with its beautiful fountain designed by Giacomo Della Porta.
Brief historical outline
Built as a temple dedicated to all the gods, erected by Marcus Agrippa in 25 B.C. and later rebuilt by Hadrian around 120 A.D., the Pantheon underwent several transformations: a Christian church in 609 and a fortress in Medieval Times.





(E) Piazza di Spagna





A meeting place for both Romans and tourists, Piazza di Spagna is famous for its theatrical staircase, a creation of Francesco De Sanctis, and for its fountain known as La Barcaccia, designed in 1629 by Pietro Bernini and his son Gian Lorenzo in the shape of a boat semisubmerged in water.
At the top of the Spanish Steps is the Church of Trinità dei Monti, erected by order of the king of France Louis XII in 1502. Farther along, on the left, is Villa Medici, today seat of the Academy of France. The streets that host the most important fashion shops, but also the sites that have left a mark on the history and the culture of Rome depart in rays from Piazza di Spagna. In this respect a visit to Caffè Greco in Via Condotti is not to be missed.
Brief historical outline
Originally Piazza di Spagna was named after the imposing church at the top of the great flight of steps, Trinità dei Monti, one of the French churches of Rome. Only in the 17th century, when Palazzo Monaldeschi became seat of the Spanish Embassy, did the square become knows as Piazza di Spagna in order to win the rivalry with France, owner of Trinità dei Monti.





SECOND DAY

Starting from the
(A) Colosseum,

walking along Via dei
(B) Fori Imperiali

to the
(C) Roman Forum
and from there, crossing Piazza Venezia, to the

(D) Campidoglio
the Capitoline Museums and the Vittoriano.





(A) The Colosseum






The Colosseum owes its name to a colossal bronze statue, representing the Emperor Nero, more than 35 m. tall, that used to stand in this area. Symbol of Rome worldwide, the Colosseum was built by the emperors of the Flavian dynasty between 72-80 A.D., on the site once occupied by an artificial lake belonging to the magnificent Domus Aurea, a compound of buildings and gardens built by Nero now in ruins but with beautiful decorations which inspired Renaissance painters. As many as 100.000 cubic meters of travertine from the Tivoli quarries were used to build this amphitheatre, the largest ever built in Roman empire. The Colosseum could hold more than 70,000 spectators who could watch the fights between gladiators, the hunting of animals and, at the very beginning, the naumachias: naval battles that took place in the arena that was flooded. The architect who designed the Colosseum is said to have been thrown alive to the wild beasts "as a reward for his own work", thus inaugurating the long story of blood and cruelties of the building he himself had conceived.
In the Middle Ages the Colosseum was transformed into a fortress. Later on, stripped of its structures, it became in turn a quarry for building materials and finally the seat of hospitals, fraternities and craft guilds. It was only towards the middle of the 18th century, that Pope Benedict XIV had it decreed "sacred site", and the plunder and devastation was stopped.





(B),(C) The Roman Forum





The Roman Forum, the most important archaeological area in Rome, extends from the Capitol Hill to the Palatine. As far back as the 7th century B.C., the Forum was the centre of political, commercial and religious life. Later on, to the original Roman Forum were added the Imperial Forums: Foro di Cesare, Foro di Augusto, Foro di Nerva, Foro di Vespasiano and the most imposing one, the Foro di Traiano, of which one can still admire the huge Column of the Markets.





(D) The Capitol and the Vittoriano






Since its origins the Capitol hill has been the seat of the city's government and the adequate place for solemn public celebrations. Piazza del Campidoglio, designed by Michelangelo, is surrounded by three noble palaces: the central one, Palazzo Senatorio, is the seat of the Municipality whereas the two on the sides, Palazzo dei Conservatori and Palazzo Nuovo, host the treasures of the Capitoline Museums. The Capitoline Picture Gallery contains over 200 paintings from the 14th to the 18th centuries by extraordinary painters such as: Tiziano, Pietro Da Cortona, Caravaggio, Guercino, Rubens and many more. The square is dominated by a copy of the bronze equestrian statue of Marc Aurelius that survived destruction because it was believed to represent the Christian emperor Constantin. The elegant plinth was designed by Michelangelo. The original can be admired inside the adjacent Museum.





A new passageway connects Piazza del Campidoglio to the terraces of the Vittoriano which offer a breathtaking view of the city. The Vittoriano, also monument to Victor Emanuel II, first king of Italy, is now completely open to the public free of charge, including the Museum-Sanctuary of the Flags of the Armed Forces and the Museum of the Risorgimento that are housed in its interior. The monument was inaugurated in 1911 to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the unification of Italy and since 1921 has been the site of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

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